Manifestos have played a significant role in various fields, such as politics, art, and social movements, often serving as powerful declarations of beliefs, intentions, or views. From the Declaration of Independence of 1776 to The Hacker Manifesto of 1986, manifestos continue to influence and steer society and culture. What about the ‘Agile Manifesto’?To get the answer to the question: ‘What is Agile Manifesto,’ we delve into a pivotal moment in the evolution of work management and organizational efficiency. The Agile Manifesto, conceived in 2001 by a group of innovative software developers, marked a radical departure from traditional, rigid project management methodologies.It proposed a dynamic approach emphasizing human interaction, adaptability, and customer satisfaction, revolutionizing software development and influencing various business practices across multiple industries.This introduction will unpack the core Agile Manifesto values and principles, examining its continued relevance and application in diverse sectors beyond software development. We will critically assess how specific popular Agile methodologies, such as Scrum and SAFe, align with or diverge from the essence of the Manifesto.Additionally, we'll explore how Agile principles can be effectively adapted and applied in non-software contexts, guided by complementary bodies of knowledge like Lean, the Theory of Constraints, System Thinking, and OODA.This discussion aims to provide insights into the transformative impact of the Agile Manifesto, highlighting its role as a guiding framework in pursuing organizational agility and customer-focused innovation.

What Is the Agile Manifesto?

Most people ask: ‘What is the Agile Manifesto?’ We should say that it was crafted by a group of forward-thinking software developers that emerged as a response to the restrictions of tradition in 2001, rigid project management methodologies. It proposed a radically different approach, prioritizing human elements, adaptability, and customer satisfaction over stringent adherence to processes and tools.This manifesto has revolutionized software development practices and found resonance in agile marketing, emphasizing a universal shift towards more dynamic, responsive, and people-centric business practices.The Agile Manifesto is an essential read for anyone wanting to grasp the essence of Agile. Furthermore, it is a seminal document in Agile development, encapsulating the core values and principles that define this way of thinking. The Agile Manifesto, as defined by the Agile Alliance, includes the following fundamental tenets:

  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools.
  • Working software over comprehensive documentation.
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation.
  • Responding to change over following a plan.

Critical Principles of Manifesto for Delivering Value

The Manifesto outlines the necessary principles for delivering value through software:

  1. Customer Satisfaction
  2. Welcome Change
  3. Delivery Frequently
  4. Working Together
  5. The Motivation of Individuals
  6. Face to Face Communication
  7. Measure Progress In Terms Of The Working Product
  8. Sustainable Pace
  9. Continuous Technical Excellence
  10. Simplicity
  11. Self-Organizing Teams
  12. Continuous Reflection and Improvement

Various agile methods and methodologies based on these principles have increased in the industry, with some becoming accepted as the new standard approach for delivering software to customers.

What Is the Agile Manifesto's Significance in Today's Context?

While several agile methods and practices have yet to age well, the principles and values that underpin the manifesto are more relevant today than ever.The Agile Manifesto is part of an ever-growing number of belief systems that call for a shift from traditional, linear, and plan-driven project management approaches to a more iterative, flexible, and team-centric one. The Manifesto's emphasis on people, working solutions, collaboration, and adaptability has made it a cornerstone for organizations striving for agility and responsiveness.The Agile Manifesto is not just a set of guidelines for software development; it is a philosophy that promotes a more adaptive, collaborative, and customer-focused approach to work. Its principles and values are foundational to understanding and implementing Agile methodologies effectively. In the rapidly evolving business landscape, The Agile Manifesto continues to be a guiding light for organizations seeking to embody agility in their practices and culture.

Why Is the Agile Manifesto Important?

The Agile Manifesto is essential because it represents more than just a methodology; it embodies a significant mindset and cultural shift. This shift advocates for a flexible, adaptive approach to work, emphasizing continuous improvement, team collaboration, and customer-centricity. The manifesto's emphasis on individuals and interactions, working solutions, customer collaboration, and responsiveness to change underpins this new mindset.

What Aspects Are Highlighted by the Agile Manifesto?

Key aspects highlighted by the Agile Manifesto include:

1. The Iterative and Incremental Approach

Agile methodologies encourage working in small, manageable increments, allowing for regular feedback and adjustments. This enhances adaptability and reduces risks associated with large-scale deliveries.

2. Team Empowerment and Self-Organization

Agile promotes the empowerment of teams, giving them the autonomy to manage their work and make decisions. This fosters ownership, accountability, and innovation within teams.

3. Customer Focus

A core element of Agile is its strong focus on delivering value to customers through close collaboration and rapid response to their needs and feedback.In summary, the Agile Manifesto is essential as it guides the adoption of an approach that is more responsive, customer-focused, and adaptive to change, moving away from rigid, traditional working methods​​.

Integrating the Principles with Agile Manifesto Values

The Agile manifesto principles, in conjunction with the Agile manifesto values, create a comprehensive framework for implementing Agile methodologies. Additionally, they encourage customer-centric, adaptive, collaborative practices and focus on sustainably delivering tangible, quality results. In any Agile transformation, these principles guide fostering a culture that values individuals, interactions, working solutions, customer collaboration, and responsiveness to change. So, they are not just guidelines for software development but principles that can enhance organizational agility in various domains.

What Does Not Match with the Agile Manifesto

The Traditional Mindset says: ‘Many of the things we have learned as part of traditional project management in the software world run counter the values and principles on the Agile Manifesto.’

  1. Heavy Emphasis on Documentation Over Working Product
  2. Top-Down, Command-and-Control Management Styles
  3. Neglecting Customer Collaboration and Feedback
  4. Ignoring Technical Excellence and Design Quality
  5. Limited Communication and Siloed Teams
  6. Resistance to Change and Inflexibility
  7. Focus First on Processes and Tools

Popular Agile Methodologies

More disturbing is that the most popular agile methodologies that have gained the most traction in the industry contain elements that run counter to the Agile Manifesto values and principles.For example, Scrum is explained, taught, and implemented in a too-fixed and prescriptive way. Strict adherence to Scrum often gets in the way of teams' self-organising and improving in a way that suits their context. Yes, Scrum offers good initial structure and guidance. Still, no Agile method should ever be used as an excuse to follow any practice dogmatically, and it can stifle the creativity and flexibility of a team. Scrum is not that good; no method or methodology is that good.The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is even worse, full of aspects that do not align well with the Agile Manifesto. SAFe is widely adopted across organizations looking to scale agile practices in large organizations. However, SAFe scales by introducing rigidity at the practice level, contrary to Agile's essence.Rolling out SAFe’s box roles, ceremonies, and artifacts are designed to coordinate and align efforts across multiple teams and the entire enterprise, a good thing indeed. Still, they are designed with a mindset of centralization and command and control. ARTs, considerable room planning, Epic Owners, and normalized story points are practices, some reasonable and some laughable, that are designed to make central coordination of big things a little bit easier, and they do nothing to increase an organization to run in a decentralized way at scale.This structured approach also results in the same kind of poor fit-for-purpose methodology bloat we saw from RUP, CMMI, and ITIL in the early 2000s—SAFe tries to solve complexity by incorporating an extensive array of elements into its framework. We often see an army of SAFe coaches who prioritize these processes over individuals and interactions and follow a set framework over responding to change – both contrary to the Agile Manifesto values.Rather than transforming organizations to operate in a more agile manner, SAFe seems more suited to selling agile to traditional organizations, with the promise that they won’t have to change, and any change they do can be described in a nice neat box, an excellent business to be in indeed.

How to Use the Agile Manifesto in Marketing?

Though formulated initially for software development, the Agile Manifesto has entered various other domains due to its adaptable and value-centric approach. To use the Agile Manifesto outside of software, we should focus on the core principles and adapt them to the specific context of the domain in question.To use the Agile Manifesto outside of software in a more action-oriented way, consider the following steps:

1. Form Self-Organizing Teams

Create teams that have the autonomy to manage their work and make decisions. This encourages ownership, accountability, and innovation across various non-software domains.

2. Foster a Trusting and Safe Environment

Develop a work culture built on trust, safety, and respect for all team members. This environment should encourage open communication and collaboration.

3. Emphasize Continuous Improvement

Implement practices that allow regular feedback and adjustments, regardless of the domain. This could involve regular review sessions or retrospectives to assess what works well and what needs progress.

4. Customer Collaboration

Engage closely with customers or stakeholders to understand their needs and respond rapidly to their feedback. This could involve regular meetings, surveys, or other forms of interaction to ensure the work is aligned with customer expectations and needs.

5. Adapt to Change

Be prepared to respond to changes in environmental, market, or customer needs. This involves being flexible in your approach and willing to pivot strategies or tactics as necessary.

6. Value Individuals and Interactions

Prioritize effective communication and interactions among team members. Encourage a culture where individuals feel valued and are empowered to contribute their ideas and feedback.

7. Focus on Delivering Value

Regardless of the domain, the primary goal should always be to deliver value to the customer or stakeholder. This means understanding what 'value' means in your specific context and continuously working towards achieving it.By taking these action steps, one can effectively apply the principles of the Agile Manifesto in various domains beyond software, ensuring a flexible, adaptive, and customer-focused approach to work​​.

How to Use the Agile Manifesto Outside of Software

Incorporating The Agile Manifesto into practice, particularly from a perspective that values a holistic and adaptive approach to Agile methodologies, involves more than just adhering to its principles in software development. It extends to various domains, including agile marketing. The Agile Marketing Manifesto, for instance, adapts Agile principles to the marketing realm, emphasizing responsiveness, customer-focused collaboration, and iterative work.While this list may seem simple, doing so in a particular domain can seem challenging. Several movements and bodies of knowledge can help bring Agile to domains outside of software, expanding Agile's broader landscape. These include:

1. Lean Startup (Product Development)

Emphasizes rapid product and market development cycles through a build-measure-learn feedback loop. It's primarily aimed at startups and innovation in established companies, providing tangible advice on experimentation, customer feedback, and pivoting when necessary. This fosters an environment of business-focused learning and adaptability, making it essential for anyone serious about business agility.

2. Design Thinking (Product Development)

A human-centred approach to innovation, focusing on understanding the user's needs and creating effective solutions through creative and collaborative processes.

3. Beyond Budgeting (Finance)

A management philosophy challenges traditional budgeting processes, advocating for more adaptive and decentralized budgeting practices.

4. Management Theory (Lean, TOC, Systems Thinking, OODA, etc.)

Lean, the Theory of Constraints, System Thinking, OODA, and other similar management approaches are part of a collective body of knowledge that complements and extends Agile principles into various domains beyond software development. While each approach is distinct, they converge on adaptability, efficiency, and a deep understanding of complex systems.For instance, Lean's focus on value creation and waste minimization can be integrated with Agile's customer-centric approach to enhance service delivery in sectors like healthcare or manufacturing. The Theory of Constraints, emphasizing identifying and managing bottlenecks aligns well with Agile's iterative process, enabling more efficient workflows in areas like project management and logistics. System Thinking, which encourages viewing problems and solutions holistically, can be paired with Agile's flexible methodology to tackle complex issues in fields like environmental management or urban planning. Similarly, OODA (Observe, Orient, Decide, Act), focusing on rapid decision-making and adaptation, complements Agile's responsiveness to change, proving valuable in dynamic sectors like marketing or event management.Together, these approaches encourage a mindset of continuous learning and improvement. For example, a healthcare provider could use System Thinking to understand patient care as an interconnected system, apply Lean to streamline patient flow, utilize the Theory of Constraints to manage resource allocation and adopt OODA for quick adaptation to changing healthcare needs. Similarly, a retail business could integrate Statup to validate customer needs and enhance customer satisfaction.In essence, these methodologies, when combined with Agile, provide a powerful toolkit for organizations to become more responsive, efficient, and adaptable, regardless of the industry or sector. This integration facilitates a deeper understanding of complex challenges and the development of innovative, customer-focused solutions.


In conclusion, the Agile Manifesto represents a fundamental shift in the approach to work management, transcending its original software development confines to influence a broad spectrum of industries. The agile manifesto's core values and principles, emphasizing adaptability, customer focus, and team empowerment, remain vitally relevant in today's rapidly evolving business landscape.However, it's crucial to recognize that implementing Agile methodologies, such as Scrum and SAFe, requires careful consideration to ensure they align with the spirit of the Manifesto. While providing structure, these methodologies often risk deviating into rigidity, which can counter the intrinsic Agile values of flexibility and responsiveness.Moreover, the successful application of Agile principles in non-software domains hinges on integrating complementary bodies of knowledge such as Lean, the Theory of Constraints, and System Thinking. These methodologies enhance the Agile framework, providing a comprehensive toolkit for organizations to adapt, innovate, and excel in various contexts. The Agile Manifesto, therefore, is not just a set of guidelines for software development but a broader philosophical approach to organizational agility. Its enduring relevance lies in its capabilities to guide organizations towards a more responsive, efficient, and customer-centred way of operating, crucial for thriving in the complexity of the modern business environment.


1. What is the Agile Manifesto?

The Agile Manifesto is an important document in Agile software development, created in 2001 by 17 software developers during a meeting at Snowbird, Utah. They formulated the manifesto to address the shortcomings of traditional software development methods and to provide a more efficient, flexible approach.The manifesto is centred around four core values and twelve guiding principles, emphasizing individuals and interactions, customer collaboration, and responding to changes.

2. What are the core values of the Agile Manifesto?

The Agile Manifesto comprises four core values:

  1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools;
  2. Working software over comprehensive documentation,
  3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation,
  4. Responding to change over following a plan.

These values highlight the importance.

3. What are the 12 principles of the Agile Manifesto?

The 12 principles of the Agile Manifesto are foundational guidelines that support the four core Agile Manifesto Values. These principles are as follows:Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through the early and constant delivery of valuable software.Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference for a shorter timescale.Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to do the job.Face-to-face conversation is the most efficient method of conveying information to and within a development team.Working software is the primary measure of progress.Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.Simplicity—the art of maximizing the work not done—is essential.The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.The team regularly reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behaviour accordingly.

4. How does the Agile Manifesto apply to software development?

In software development, the Agile Manifesto emphasizes a flexible, iterative approach to delivering functional software quickly and responding rapidly to changes. This approach values direct collaboration between developers and business stakeholders, continuous improvement, and adapting to changing needs over rigidly following a predetermined plan. The Agile Manifesto guides software teams to focus on value delivery and adaptability by prioritizing working software and customer collaboration.

5. Can the Agile Manifesto be applied outside of software development?

Indeed, the Agile Manifesto principles can be effectively applied outside of software development. Its focus on individuals, interactions, customer collaboration, and adaptability is relevant in various domains. For example, Agile can guide teams in marketing to respond rapidly to market changes and consumer feedback. In manufacturing, it can mean quicker adaptation to new technologies or consumer demands, emphasizing continuous improvement and flexibility.

6. What is the significance of the Agile Manifesto in today's context?

Today, the Agile Manifesto remains highly relevant as it advocates for a flexible, adaptive approach to work, which is crucial in the fast-paced and ever-changing business environment. Its emphasis on customer collaboration, team empowerment, and responsiveness to change provides a solid foundation for organizations to navigate complexity and deliver value more efficiently and effectively.

7. How does the Agile Manifesto differ from traditional project management methodologies?

Traditional project management methodologies often emphasize extensive planning, documentation, and adherence to fixed processes and timelines. In contrast, the Agile Manifesto prioritizes adaptability, customer collaboration, and the frequent delivery of functional products. Agile methodologies favour iterative development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams.

8. How can an organization adopt the Agile Manifesto's principles?

To adopt the Agile Manifesto principles, an organization should foster a culture that values individuals and interactions, embraces change, encourages customer collaboration, and emphasizes the delivery of working solutions. This involves rethinking traditional hierarchical structures, empowering teams, and adopting practices that promote flexibility, continuous improvement, and responsiveness to customer feedback. It's about creating an environment where teams can self-organize, make decisions, and innovate to deliver value effectively.

9. What are common misconceptions about the Agile Manifesto?

A common misconception is that the Agile Manifesto disregards processes, documentation, or planning. In reality, while prioritizing individuals, interactions, and working software, the manifesto acknowledges the value of these elements. Another misconception is that Agile is only for software development.However, its principles are applicable in various industries. Agile is often mistakenly seen as an unstructured approach, but it promotes disciplined practices centered around continuous improvement and customer value.

10. How do Agile frameworks like Scrum and SAFe relate to the Agile Manifesto?

Frameworks like Scrum and SAFe implement Agile principles but sometimes deviate from the core values of the Agile Manifesto. For example, Scrum offers structure and guidance but can become too prescriptive, potentially stifling team creativity and flexibility.SAFe, designed for scaling Agile in large organizations, can introduce rigidity and complexity, which may conflict with Agile’s emphasis on simplicity and adaptability.

11. What challenges might teams face when adopting the Agile Manifesto?

Teams adopting the Agile Manifesto may face challenges such as resistance to change, especially in organizations with deeply entrenched traditional practices. There might be a struggle to shift from focusing on processes and tools to valuing individuals and interactions. Misunderstandings about Agile principles can lead to incorrect implementation, and there can be difficulty in sustaining long-term commitment to Agile practices.

12. How should the Agile Manifesto be interpreted in the context of continuous technological and market changes?

The Agile Manifesto should be interpreted as a flexible guide that supports adaptation in the face of technological and market changes. Its principles encourage continuous learning, responsiveness to change, and customer collaboration, which are essential in a rapidly evolving business environment.Agile practices should grow to remain relevant and effective in addressing new challenges and leveraging emerging technologies.